The kind of engagement usually envisaged between custom name skull united parcel service bedding set public servants and citizens typically requires of citizens a somewhat demanding set of attributes. Ideally, if reasoned and respectful public dialogue is to ensue,
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When public servants embark on a strategy of citizen engagement, there is little that they can do about the existing dispositions, attitudes and competencies of the citizens or stakeholders with whom they seek to engage. custom name skull united parcel service bedding set But guidance is available by virtue of, for example, the prescriptions for best practice outlined in Appendices 2 and 3. In short, the idea is to maximise communication, allow sufficient time for the engagement to occur, pass as much of the control of the process as possible to the participants, and ensure that the recording and feedback mechanisms are robust and intelligible. Public servants might also draw on the insights and advice of those involved in the successful exercises in co-production that have been described in the literature and included in Appendix 1.
Since then, the desire by many democratic governments to promote social inclusion, build social capital, encourage more personal responsibility in matters such as health and retirement income security, and to broaden governments’ capacity to address so-called ‘wicked problems’, has created a very favourable political and social climate for involving citizens in the co-production / co-design / co-creation of public services. Engaging with socially excluded and other marginalised people in order to design, with them, effective solutions and services requires considerable cross-agency collaboration—something which, as a rule, is notoriously difficult to achieve. Strong links with external service providers are also required. Better coordination is of itself rarely enough; additional resources are needed. Even targeting is not without its dilemmas, given its potential to direct resources to one marginalised group over another in a zero sum game’, as well as being ‘invasive and stigmatising’.