We examine why international actors-including states, custom name us veteran if you havent risked coming home under a flag full over printed shirt firms, and activists-seek different types of legalized arrangements to solve political and substantive problems.
custom name us veteran if you havent risked coming home under a flag full over printed shirt
Rule utilitarianism allows very uneven distributions of value, justifying the suffering of the less advantaged by greater overall advantage. By contrast, according to a social-contract view, custom name us veteran if you havent risked coming home under a flag full over printed shirt the well-being of everyone, including the worst-off, is taken into account. Utilitarianism can, however, achieve these goods if it is modified to apply to rules rather than individual acts. Then one is still bound by social rules governing the institutions of keeping agreements and fulfilling contracts even though more good might be done in the individual case by breaking the social rule. One takes actions not because the individual actions produce the greatest amount of good, but because the right action is to follow social rules which produce the greatest amount of good.
This theory is called rule utilitarianism. The basis of ethics as cooperative principles is the realization that rules limiting individual self-interest can often produce greater cooperative benefits. 2 Making and keeping agreements are a major part of ethics so conceived. But ethical principles allowing us cooperative benefits involve more than keeping agreements. The principle of benevolence—to give aid to others in need—holds without any agreement. We simply assume that human beings recognize each other as fellow human beings and give aid because in so doing they expect that they will receive aid when they are in trouble. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. To support researchers during this challenging time in which many are unable to get to physical libraries, we have expanded our free read-online access to 100 articles per month through December 31, 2020.