a set of overarching governance challenges that arise from the nature of SLR, such as its long-term commitment and uncertainty, and the associated politically and socially contested choices that need to be made … Next, My hero academia fumikage tokoyami anime 3d night light led planning, public participation, conflict resolution and decision analysis approaches and tools are
My hero academia fumikage tokoyami anime 3d night light led
concluded that the SLR on millennial time scales is strongly dependent on the emission scenario followed. This, combined with the lack in predictability of the tipping points, indicates the importance of emissions mitigation for minimising the risk to low-lying coastlines and islands . As retreat has the merit of conserving the coastal ecosystem, this strategy and ecosystem-based adaptation, such as enhancing coral reefs and mangroves, are often given priority. However, in the face of the tremendous damage of the Indian Ocean Tsunami in , hurricane Katrina in , and the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in , people again recognized the important role of robust coastal protection structures as well as their limitation, especially for coastal mega cities and places with critical facilities such as large industries and nuclear power plants. It is projected that, in Asi coastal megacities where more than million inhabitants live, will increase as a result of population growth and economic development. Therefore, in the middle of the st century, climate change impacts will occur over and above such simultaneous increases in population and economic activity. It is therefore obvious that urban and infrastructure planning need to incorporate responses to climate change and sea-level rise. There are a number of studies for Japan. However, many studies estimated a inundation risk assuming no coastal protection, because data for coastal protection facilities were not easily available. Though these results gave an indicator for a potential risk My hero academia fumikage tokoyami anime 3d night light led of inundation, a more realistic assessment was needed. Recently, a study was undertaken to estimate the inundation risks in the three major bays in the s, using the heights of the present seawalls along these bays. This study indicated the following results assuming that the typhoon becomes . times stronger than the Ise Bay Typhoon in ; the inundation areas and people at risk will be km and thousand, respectively, and economic damage will amount to . . trillion JPY.
The range of estimates comes from the three different scenarios for sea-level rise. This study also showed that, if sea-level rise and intensified storm surges are superposed, the current return period of several hundred years for a high water level will be shortened to several decades. The significance of this result is that the current design heights of seawalls might be insufficient for the higher sea level expected in the future. Sea-level rise is a major effect of climate change. It has drawn international attention, because higher sea levels in the future would cause serious impacts in various parts of the world. There are questions associated with sea-level rise which science needs to answer. To what extent did climate change contribute to sea-level rise in the past? How much will global mean sea level increase in the future? How serious are the impacts of the anticipated sea-level rise likely to be, and can human society respond to them? This paper aims to answer these questions through a comprehensive review of the relevant literature. First, the present status of observed sea-level rise, analyses of its causes, and future projections are summarized. Then the impacts are examined along with other consequences of climate change, from both global and Japanese perspectives. Finally, responses to adverse impacts will be discussed in order to clarify the implications of the sea-level rise issue for human society. SLR responses refer to legislation, plans and actions undertaken to reduce risk and build resilience in the face of SLR see Cross- Box in . These responses range from protecting the coast, accommodating SLR impacts, retreating from the coast, advancing into the ocean by building seawards and EbA Box .. Identifying the most appropriate way to respond to SLR is not straightforward and is politically and socially contested with a range of governance challenges arising. This first assesses the post-AR literature on the different types of SLR responses ,, protection, accommodation, advance, retreat and EbA in terms of their effectiveness, technical limits, costs, benefits, co-benefits, drawbacks, economic efficiency and barriers, and the specific governance challenges associated with each type of response … It then identifies
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