options that analyse the effects on climate change mitigation by dietary changes. Little focus has been brought on demand-side summer beach harley davidson full printing hawaiian shirt adaptation measures to adjust the demand to the food challenges related to drivers such as market, climate change, inputs limitations , food access, and quality. Adding to that, the high
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there are over twenty families of policy areas that can shape agricultural production directly or indirectly . Thus, delivering outcomes promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation can arise from policies across many departments, if suitably designed and aligned. Food sovereignty is a framing developed to conceptualise these issues . They directly relate to the ability of local communities and nations to build their food systems, based, among other aspects, on diversified crops and ILK. If a country enters international markets by growing more commodity crops and reducing local crop varieties, it may get economic benefits, but may also expose itself to climate risks and food insecurity by increasing reliance on trade, which may be increasingly disrupted by climate risks. These include a local lack of resilience from reduced diversity of products, but also exposure to food price spikes, which can become amplified by market mechanisms such as speculation. Some studies have found a modest mitigation potential of diet shifts when economic and biophysical systems effects are taken into account in association with current dietary guidelines. Tukker , considering economic rebound effects of diet shifts ,, part of the gains would be lost due to increased use at lower prices, found maximum changes in emissions of the EU food system of less than of total EU emissions when reducing meat consumption by to . Using an economic optimisation model for studying carbon taxation in food but with adjustments of agricultural production summer beach harley davidson full printing hawaiian shirt systems and commodity markets in Europe, Zech and Schneider found a reduction of . in GHG emissions at a tax level of USD per tCO-eq. They estimate a leakage of of the GHG emissions reduced by domestic consumption, ,, although reducing emissions due to reducing consumption, around of the emissions would not be reduced because part of the production would be directed to exports. In summary, food security will be threatened through increasing numbers of malnourished people if land-based mitigation raises prices, unless other policy mechanisms reduce its impact . Inclusive policy design can avoid adverse side effects on food security by shielding vulnerable people from the additional risk of hunger that would be caused by the economic effects of policies narrowly focusing on climate objectives . In summary, demand-side changes in food choices and consumption can help to achieve global GHG mitigation targets . Low-carbon diets on average tend to be healthier and have smaller land footprints. By , technical mitigation potential of dietary changes range from . . GtCO-eq yr for assessed diets .
At the same time, the economic potential of such solutions is lower, ranging from . . GtCO-eq yr at prices of USD tCO, with caloric costs up to kcal per person per day. The feasibility of how to create economically viable transitions to more sustainable and healthy diets that also respect food security requirements needs to be addressed in future research. These practices can improve food security through increases in productivity and stability since they contribute to increased soil quality and waterolding capacity. Agroforestry provides economic, ecological, and social stability through diversification of species and products. On the other hand, trade-offs are possible when cropland is taken out of production mainly as a mitigation strategy. Demand-side mitigation practices include dietary changes that lead to reduction of GHG emissions from production and changes in land use that sequester carbon. Reduction of food loss and waste can contribute to mitigation of GHGs on both the supply and demand sides. See Section . and Chapter for the enabling conditions needed to ensure that these food system measures would deliver their potential mitigation outcomes. Community-based adaptation builds on social organisational capacities and resources to address food security and climate change. CBA represents bottom-up approaches and localised adaptation measures where social dynamics serve as the power to respond to the impacts of climate change . It identifies, assists, and implements development activities that strengthen the capacity of local people to adapt to living in a riskier and less predictable climate, while ensuring their food security. Most literature has focused on demand-side